Friday, July 24, 2015

Update: Make-A-Wish Teen's Visit

The UH Manoa News staff recently published a feature on our Make-A-Wish Teen's visit a few weeks ago.  The following video of Camron's experience shows how the UH community came together to make her dream of becoming a marine biologist come true.
 


For additional details about her visit, please see our previous blog post regarding the Make-A-Wish program: Make-A-Wish Visit - Camron Island

Friday, July 17, 2015

Sea Cucumber Harvest Ban

On the 26th of June 2015, the Hawaii Board of Land and Natural Resources announced that it would be illegal to harvest any species of sea cucumber from Hawaii State waters for 120 days. This emergency ruling has been implemented to immediately stop the continued depletion of sea cucumber numbers, after an investigation by officers from the DLNR Division of Conservation and Resources Enforcement confirmed that a new commercial fishery had begun (Department of Land and Natural Resources, 2015).


(Clayton Wakida, KITV, 2015)

Sea cucumbers along with other echinoderms are described as a “keystone species” as they play a major role in structuring many marine ecosystems (Skillings, Bird and Toonen, 2014). They work as the “vacuum cleaners” of the sea floor consuming organic detritus (waste) and help to prevent the growth of slime algae that can damage coral reefs (Skillings, Bird and Toonen, 2011).  Sea cucumbers like many other species are also the target of artisanal or commercial fishing activities. Stocks of sea cucumbers are being continually depleted, with the more valuable species being depleted first (Skillings et al., 2011). Studies have shown the loss of sea cucumbers from an ecosystem can result in the hardening of sands around reefs, which can lead to the loss of soft bottom species, increased growth of micro and macro algae and reduced nutrient processing (Skillings et al., 2014).


Black sea cucumber. Image Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology
Why is removing them such a problem? Little is known about the growth rate, longevity, or sexual maturity of these animals. The few studies of wild populations of sea cucumbers suggest that these are very long-lived animals with slow growth and reproductive rates.  These are characteristics that make a species very sensitive to overharvest (Skillings et al.,2014).  Studies conducted on species of sea cucumber that are harvested for consumption, primarily Holothuria whitmaei and Holothuria (Microthele) nobilis, suggest that it can take one sea cucumber 10-35 years to reach sexual maturity (Shiell and Uthicke, 2005). Sea cucumbers show no visible sings of ageing and theoretically in perfect conditions they could live forever. However in a wild population the likelihood of this happening is very rare. It is estimated that that the average life span of a sea cucumber is approximately 40-60 years (Shiell and Uthicke, 2005). 

Black sea cucumber. Image Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology
Why has the harvesting of sea cucumber become such a problem? Sea cucumbers have been harvested for consumption for over 1000 years in China and India (James and James, 1994).  These traditional practices only harvested a small amount of sea cucumber for consumption. This was not a problem because they were not depleting the stocks to a point that they could not recover (Friedman et.al, 2010). The commercialization of the sea cucumber, primarily as ‘beche-de-mer’ the dried form, in the Asia-Pacific region saw a spike in the amount of sea cucumbers being harvested. As this industry was unregulated, sea cucumbers were being harvested in huge number in the early 1800's but the trade declined by the early 20th century as the populations were reduced to a point that there were insufficient numbers to support a trade or to replenish the stock numbers (Ward, 1972; Moore, 2003). 

Over a hundred years later, in the 1980's, another boom in the harvesting of sea cucumbers occurred, as there was a spike in the demand from the Chinese communities around the world (Friedman et.al, 2010).  Today, the demand from the Chinese communities around the world is still increasing. Even with the introduction of an aquaculture industry, the demand for sea cucumber greatly outweighs the supply. One kilogram of sea cucumber has been recorded selling for US $2,950. This has caused sea cucumbers to be harvested from wild populations in numbers that have not been seen before (Friedman et.al, 2010).  If this trend is to continue, irreversible damage will be done to the sea cucumber populations resulting in the extinction of many species (Purcell et.al, 2010).

Written by Jardine Gunn

Department of Land and Natural Resources, (2015). 06/26/15 - Sea Cucumber Harvesting Banned For 120 Days in Hawaii. [online] Available at: http://dlnr.hawaii.gov/blog/2015/06/26/nr15-94/ [Accessed 7 Jul. 2015].

Friedman, K., Eriksson, H., Tardy, E. and Pakoa, K. (2010). Management of sea cucumber stocks: patterns of vulnerability and recovery of sea cucumber stocks impacted by fishing. Fish and Fisheries, 12(1), pp.75-93.

James, D.B., and James, P.S.B.R. (1994).  A hand book on Indian sea-cucumbers. CMFRI Special Publications, 59, pp. 47

Moore, C. (2003). New Guinea: Crossing Boundaries and History. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.

Purcell, S., Lovatelli, A., Vasconcellos, M. and Ye, Y. (2010). Managing sea cucumber fisheries with an ecosystem approach. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Shiell, G. and Uthicke, S. (2005). Reproduction of the commercial sea cucumber Holothuria whitmaei [Holothuroidea: Aspidochirotida] in the Indian and Pacific Ocean regions of Australia. Marine Biology, 148(5), pp.973-986.

Skillings, D., Bird, C. and Toonen, R. (2011). Gateways to Hawai 'i: genetic population structure of the tropical sea cucumber Holothuria atra. Journal of Marine Biology, pp.1-16.

Skillings, D., Bird, C. and Toonen, R. (2014). Comparative population structure of two edible Indo-Pacific coral reef sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). Bulletin of Marine Science, 90(1), pp. 359-378.

Ward, R. (1972). The Pacific Beche-de-mer trade with specific reference to Fiji. In: Man in the Pacific: Essays on Geographical Change in Pacific Islands (ed. R. Ward). Oxford,  Clarendon Press. pp. 91-123


Images:

Clayton Wakida, K. (2015). Sea cucumber harvesting banned for 4 months in Hawaii. [online] KITV. Available at: http://www.kitv.com/news/sea-cucumber-harvesting-banned-for-4-months-in-hawaii/33801988 [Accessed 10 Jul. 2015].

Friday, July 10, 2015

Make-A-Wish Visit - Camron island

Aloha everyone,

On Tuesday, CEP had the pleasure of hosting a Make-A-Wish child, Camron.  The Make-A-Wish Foundation is dedicated to granting the wishes of children with life-threatening diseases.  The HIMB faculty, staff and students were excited to contribute to making her wish of undertaking a genuine marine biology experience with the University of Hawaii come true.  In her honor, we renamed the island for the day!
Camron with CEP's coordinator, Mark Heckman, on their way to Moku o Lo'e. 
Photo taken by Jose Magno, UH Admissions Office







Camron and her family with HIMB's Community Education Program and the Make-A-Wish Foundation Staff
Photo taken by Lee Nakamoto, UH Admissions Office
Her visit consisted of a shark feeding with the Holland Lab and coral breakage surveys with CEP.  Over the past 4 months, we've monitored specific breaks in rice coral, Montipora capitata, and tracked their regrowth over time.  Camron assisted with the photo-taking for the day's monitoring.

The results of a few of our monitored breaks are demonstrated in the pictures below:





The photos on the left show clean breaks marked on February 9, 2015.
The photos on the right display their regrowth as of July 7, 2015.

While some of our breaks have recovered successfully, it's apparent that algae competitors are the main factors in preventing regrowth of coral tissue.  CEP is working to develop this program further in order to more closely observe coral breakage recovery steadily over longer time periods.  Camron's assistance with these photo surveys was a welcome contribution to our coral breakage study. Working with Camron and the Make-A-Wish foundation was positive reinforcement for our continued development and maintenance of citizen science programs.

Photo taken by Lee Nakamoto, UH Admissions Officer
It was our pleasure to host Camron at Moku o Lo'e for the Day.  The Community Education Program hopes to have many more Make A Wish collaborations in the near future.


Mahalo,
Casey and Leon

Friday, June 19, 2015

Peter Yarrow of Peter, Paul, and Mary playing at UHM June 26th


HIMB's Community Education Program is collaborating with Ocean Matters to put on a concert at UH Campus Center featuring Peter Yarrow, a member of the popular folk-trio Peter, Paul, and Mary.  The group has created hits such as "Puff (the magic dragon)", "Leaving on a jet plane", and "If I had a hammer". 

Peter Yarrow is now a director of Ocean Matters, an organization dedicated to providing programs centered around marine conservation for youth and educators.  As a long-time advocate for marine conservation and education, he has donated his performance so all proceeds may go towards an Ocean Matters/HIMB scholarship fund allowing local students to participate in Ocean Matters' future expeditions to HIMB.

The event will take place on Friday, June 26th at 7:00pm in the Campus Center Ballroom.  Doors will open at 6:30pm. 

You may purchase tickets at the Campus Center Ticket Office or on eventbrite at the following link: Peter Yarrow Concert - Eventbrite
Adults are $32.50 and Students with ID are $20
You may buy a VIP ticket for $75.00 which includes a Meet & Greet reception with light refreshments following the event.
Please see the attached poster below for additional details! 

Peter Yarrow was interviewed yesterday on NPR.  You may listen to the show at the following link.  It starts around 16 minutes in:
http://cpa.ds.npr.org/khpr/audio/2015/06/TC0617.mp3?origin=body

Sunday, June 7, 2015

The unnatural history of Kane'ohe Bay: coral reef resilience in the face of centuries of anthropogenic impacts


Fresh off the press is a new publication titled "The unnatural history of Kane'ohe Bay: coral reef resilience in the face of centuries of anthropogenic impacts" authored by graduate student Keisha Bahr, and HIMB faculty members Paul Jokiel (Point Lab) and Rob Toonen (ToBo Lab/New Pauley Lab).  This research paper examines how the estuarine reef ecosystem of Kane'ohe Bay has been impacted by anthropogenic (man-made) activities as well as natural stressors.  Human impact was measured in terms of sedimentation, introduction of invasive species, over fishing/harvesting, dredging and filling, urbanization of the surrounding area, sewage discharge, and increases in global temperatures due to anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions.  Natural stressors occurring in Kane'ohe Bay include exposure during very low tides, freshwater killing of coral due to storm floods, as well as greater temperature variation, sedimentation, and lower pH levels than more oceanic reefs.  Drawing from over 100 sources, the authors track the state of the reef in Kane'ohe Bay from the Polynesian Era (1250-1778) to the Western Era (1778-2015), and provide multiple projections of reef health in the Future Era (2015-2040).
   
Indigenous: Striped Mullet (Mugil cephalus, 'ama'ama).  Picture by Randall, J.E.
One of the most interesting aspects of the Polynesian Era was the higher percentage of coral cover despite a greater human population residing in Kane'ohe than the nearly 35,000 people here today. This was due, in part, to the practice of sustainable agriculture and aquaculture.  The practice of aquaculture was so abundant in Kane'ohe Bay that by the 19th-century 30 fish ponds comprised 30% of the bay's shoreline.

Invasive: Kanda (Valamugil engeli, syn. Moolgarda engeli). Picture by Randall, J.E.










While examining the major impacts during the Western Era, the authors discuss the introduction of invasive species, which currently account for approximately 14.5% of the bay's total biota.  One example of an invasive Kane'ohe Bay resident is the kanda (Valamugil engeli, syn. Moolgarda engeli), a species of mullet which is thought to compete with the native striped mullet (Mugil cephalus, 'ama'ama).  While the a mature striped mullet grows to three times the size of the kanda, as juveniles they are almost impossible to differentiate in situ (Randal, J.E., 2007).

Indiginous: Bandtail Goatfish (Upeneus arge, weke pueo). Picture by Randall, J.E.

Also thought to be in competition with the striped mullet is the stripped goatfish (Upeneus vittatus), which looks very similar to the native bandtail goatfish (Upeneus arge, weke pueo).  In 1974, it was discovered that the original U. vittatus type specimen had been lost and replaced with a similar goatfish species (Randal, J.E., 2007).

Invasive: Stripped Goatfish (Upeneus vittatus). Picture by Randall, J.E.

In the Future Era segment of this article there is a figure plotting the amount of coral cover in Kane'ohe Bay from 1250 AD up to 2040 AD.  From 2015 onward to 2040 there are two projections predicting future coral cover.  The label of the grim projection swooping downward toward 0% coral cover left me dumbfounded; "business as usual."  It seemed that "worse case scenario" would have been more accurate description, and that "business as usual" felt unscientific and indifferent.  The authors, however, explained the reasoning for said label masterfully, and I hope you take the time to read it for yourself at https://peerj.com/articles/950/.

Leon Weaver

Other work cited:
Randall, J. (2007). Reef and shore fishes of the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu: Sea Grant College Program, University of HawaiĘ»i.  

Friday, May 8, 2015

CEP's Newest Project - Soon to come!

For the past few months, CEP has been crafting a plankton guide that can appeal to students, teachers, and plankton enthusiasts of all ages.  Luckily, we had Thomas Wood and Casey Breslow hard at work creating this during their internships.  We're continuing to mold it into a universal and practical version, but the following is a preview of what we have so far.  Our Chaetognath section is shown below.

 Let us know what you think!



 



Aloha,
Casey